Growth-protection transactions shape the genetic composition of the population in a typical forest tree species


Genetic diversity is important for ecological strength, and different traits are expected to be useful in different contexts. Behaviors are not completely neutral, however: in the case of transactions, the choice of one behavior may be indirectly applied to another. Here we explore how the mediation choice for local mediation is related to the trade-off between growth and plant conservation in Aspen. We show that even locally modified behaviors can lead to real-time differences in genetic diversity between environments. The downward spiral of the growth-defensive trade The high-competition areas selected for the fast-growing trees led to ecological variability and eventually to plant-based resistance. This finding demonstrates how genetic related patterns can be linked to ecological and evolutionary processes combined with environmental differences.


All creatures encounter fundamental conflicts between dynamic metabolic processes. In plants, there is a critical conflict between accelerating growth and protecting existing tissues from vegetation. Trade between growth and defensive traits is not seen internationally, and the ecological focus of plant evolution suggests that the context of these trade-offs contributes to maintaining internal diversity in defense. [Züst and Agrawal, Annu. Rev. Plant Biol., 68, 513–534 (2017)]. This prognosis has been poorly researched, and the evolutionary effects of growth-mediated mutations in different areas are not well understood, especially in long-lived species. [Cipollini et al., Annual Plant Reviews (Wiley, 2014), pp. 263–307]. Here we show that mutually exclusive behaviors, even adapted to different environments, interact with competition to drive the natural selection of tree genotypes related to their development. Our results show that behavioral variability, coupled with environmental variability, results in real-time differences in genetic architecture in the experimental setting. In particular, it has been dominated by fast-growing tree genus, which is not well-protected against natural enemies. This result is an example of eco-evolutionary signatures: Competitive interactions have been affected by microevolution in the appropriate time frame for subsequent ecological interactions. [Brunner et al., Funct. Ecol. 33, 7–12 (2019)]. Tree growth and protection Eco-evolution drivers are therefore important in this level of behavioral diversity, which sets communities and ecosystems on an expanded statistical scale.


  • Author Contributions: KK-R. , ELK, and RLL designed research; OLC, KK-R., ELK and RLL conducted research; OLC analyzed data; And OLC, KK-R. , ELK and RLL wrote the paper.

  • The authors state that there is no competitive interest.

  • This article is a direct submission of PNAS.

  • This article contains online support information at

Data availability

The data set related to the current study is located in the Dryad Database (DOI: 10.5061 / dryad.x95x69phb) (58).

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